Restatement of the Law,

Copyright

This Restatement will encompass general copyright law.
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    Tentative Draft No. 3
    Tentative Draft No. 3
    472 pages, 2022, #1RCRTD3

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Section                                                                             Page

    Project Status at a Glance ................................................. xvi

    Foreword ........................................................................... xvii

    Reporters’ Memorandum ................................................... xix

    CHAPTER 1

    SUBJECT MATTER AND STANDARDS: GENERALLY

    § 10. Excluded Subject Matter: Edicts of Law and Government Edicts ............................................................... 1

    CHAPTER 2

    SUBJECT MATTER OF COPYRIGHT: SCOPE OF PROTECTION

    § 12. Copyright that Subsists in a Work Protects Original Expression but Does Not Extend to Ideas or Other
    Excluded Elements [For Reference Only]  ......................... 18

    § 15. Exclusion of Methods from Scope of Copyright Protection ........................................................................... 28

    CHAPTER 3

    INITIAL OWNERSHIP, TRANSFERS, VOLUNTARY LICENSES, AND TERMINATION OF GRANTS

    § 20. Initial Ownership, Transfer, and Licensing of
    Copyright: Generally [Section 20 was approved at the
    2021 Annual Meeting; Comment g is new.] ........................ 38

    § 27. Nonexclusive Licenses .............................................. 47

    § 28. Law Governing the Interpretation of Transfers and Nonexclusive Licenses ....................................................... 59

    § 29. Statutory Rights to Terminate Transfers and
    Licenses ............................................................................. 65

    CHAPTER 4

    COPYRIGHT FORMALITIES

    § 40. Copyright Formalities ................................................ 86

    § 41. Publication On or After January 1, 1978 ................... 97

    § 46. Publication from July 1, 1909, to December 31,
    1977 .................................................................................. 116

    § 47. Use, Form, and Placement of Copyright Notice
    from July 1, 1909, to December 31, 1977 ........................ 133

    § 48. Registration of Copyright Claims from July 1, 1909,
    to December 31, 1977 ...................................................... 139

    CHAPTER 5

    DURATION OF COPYRIGHT

    § 49. Duration of Copyright: Generally
    [For Reference Only] ........................................................ 143

    § 50. Term of Copyright for Works Created On or After January 1, 1978 ................................................................ 147

    § 51. Term of Copyright for Works Created but Not
    Published or Copyrighted Before January 1, 1978 .......... 156

    § 53. Duration: Derivative Works and Compilations ......... 162

    § 54. Abandonment of Copyright Rights .......................... 166

    CHAPTER 6

    COPYRIGHT RIGHTS AND LIMITATIONS

    § 55. Copyright Rights and Limitations: Generally
    [For Reference Only] ........................................................ 177

    § 56. The Copyright Owner’s Exclusive Right of Reproduction .................................................................... 181

    § 57. The Copyright Owner’s Exclusive Right to Distribute Copies or Phonorecords of the Work to the Public .......... 191

    § 59. First Sale Limitation on the Copyright Owner’s Exclusive Right to Distribute Copies or Phonorecords of
    the Work to the Public ...................................................... 204

    CHAPTER 9

    COPYRIGHT REMEDIES

    § 9.01. Remedies for Copyright Infringement .................. 215

    § 9.02. Injunctive Relief in Copyright Cases .................... 222

    § 9.03. Monetary Relief: Actual Damages and Profits ...... 250

    § 9.04. Monetary Relief: Statutory Damages ................... 284

    § 9.05. Costs, Including Attorney’s Fees .......................... 316

    § 9.06. Impoundment and Disposition .............................. 333

    Appendix A. Statutory Appendix .................................. 347

    Appendix B. Black Letter of Tentative Draft No. 3 ....... 423

    Appendix C. Black Letter of Sections Approved by Membership .................................................................... 439

    Tentative Draft No. 3 contains material from Chapter 1, Subject Matter and Standards: Generally (§ 10); Chapter 2, Subject Matter of Copyright: Scope of Protection (§ 12 (for reference only); § 15); Chapter 3, Initial Ownership, Transfers, Voluntary Licenses, and Termination of Grants (§ 20, Comment g; §§ 27-29); Chapter 4, Copyright Formalities (§§ 40, 41, 46-48); Chapter 5, Duration of Copyright (§ 49 (for reference only); §§ 50, 51, 53, 54); Chapter 6, Copyright Rights and Limitations (§ 55 (for reference only); §§ 56, 57, 59); and Chapter 9, Copyright Remedies (§§ 9.01-9.06). The membership voted to approve this draft at the 2022 Annual Meeting, subject to the discussion at the Meeting and editorial prerogative. This material may be cited as representing the Institute’s position until the official text is published.

    472 pages, 2022, #1RCRTD3E

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Section                                                                             Page

    Project Status at a Glance ................................................. xvi

    Foreword ........................................................................... xvii

    Reporters’ Memorandum ................................................... xix

    CHAPTER 1

    SUBJECT MATTER AND STANDARDS: GENERALLY

    § 10. Excluded Subject Matter: Edicts of Law and Government Edicts ............................................................... 1

    CHAPTER 2

    SUBJECT MATTER OF COPYRIGHT: SCOPE OF PROTECTION

    § 12. Copyright that Subsists in a Work Protects Original Expression but Does Not Extend to Ideas or Other
    Excluded Elements [For Reference Only]  ......................... 18

    § 15. Exclusion of Methods from Scope of Copyright Protection ........................................................................... 28

    CHAPTER 3

    INITIAL OWNERSHIP, TRANSFERS, VOLUNTARY LICENSES, AND TERMINATION OF GRANTS

    § 20. Initial Ownership, Transfer, and Licensing of
    Copyright: Generally [Section 20 was approved at the
    2021 Annual Meeting; Comment g is new.] ........................ 38

    § 27. Nonexclusive Licenses .............................................. 47

    § 28. Law Governing the Interpretation of Transfers and Nonexclusive Licenses ....................................................... 59

    § 29. Statutory Rights to Terminate Transfers and
    Licenses ............................................................................. 65

    CHAPTER 4

    COPYRIGHT FORMALITIES

    § 40. Copyright Formalities ................................................ 86

    § 41. Publication On or After January 1, 1978 ................... 97

    § 46. Publication from July 1, 1909, to December 31,
    1977 .................................................................................. 116

    § 47. Use, Form, and Placement of Copyright Notice
    from July 1, 1909, to December 31, 1977 ........................ 133

    § 48. Registration of Copyright Claims from July 1, 1909,
    to December 31, 1977 ...................................................... 139

    CHAPTER 5

    DURATION OF COPYRIGHT

    § 49. Duration of Copyright: Generally
    [For Reference Only] ........................................................ 143

    § 50. Term of Copyright for Works Created On or After January 1, 1978 ................................................................ 147

    § 51. Term of Copyright for Works Created but Not
    Published or Copyrighted Before January 1, 1978 .......... 156

    § 53. Duration: Derivative Works and Compilations ......... 162

    § 54. Abandonment of Copyright Rights .......................... 166

    CHAPTER 6

    COPYRIGHT RIGHTS AND LIMITATIONS

    § 55. Copyright Rights and Limitations: Generally
    [For Reference Only] ........................................................ 177

    § 56. The Copyright Owner’s Exclusive Right of Reproduction .................................................................... 181

    § 57. The Copyright Owner’s Exclusive Right to Distribute Copies or Phonorecords of the Work to the Public .......... 191

    § 59. First Sale Limitation on the Copyright Owner’s Exclusive Right to Distribute Copies or Phonorecords of
    the Work to the Public ...................................................... 204

    CHAPTER 9

    COPYRIGHT REMEDIES

    § 9.01. Remedies for Copyright Infringement .................. 215

    § 9.02. Injunctive Relief in Copyright Cases .................... 222

    § 9.03. Monetary Relief: Actual Damages and Profits ...... 250

    § 9.04. Monetary Relief: Statutory Damages ................... 284

    § 9.05. Costs, Including Attorney’s Fees .......................... 316

    § 9.06. Impoundment and Disposition .............................. 333

    Appendix A. Statutory Appendix .................................. 347

    Appendix B. Black Letter of Tentative Draft No. 3 ....... 423

    Appendix C. Black Letter of Sections Approved by Membership .................................................................... 439

    Tentative Draft No. 3 contains material from Chapter 1, Subject Matter and Standards: Generally (§ 10); Chapter 2, Subject Matter of Copyright: Scope of Protection (§ 12 (for reference only); § 15); Chapter 3, Initial Ownership, Transfers, Voluntary Licenses, and Termination of Grants (§ 20, Comment g; §§ 27-29); Chapter 4, Copyright Formalities (§§ 40, 41, 46-48); Chapter 5, Duration of Copyright (§ 49 (for reference only); §§ 50, 51, 53, 54); Chapter 6, Copyright Rights and Limitations (§ 55 (for reference only); §§ 56, 57, 59); and Chapter 9, Copyright Remedies (§§ 9.01-9.06). The membership voted to approve this draft at the 2022 Annual Meeting, subject to the discussion at the Meeting and editorial prerogative. This material may be cited as representing the Institute’s position until the official text is published.

     
  •  
    Tentative Draft No. 2
    376 pages, 2021, #1RCRTD2E

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

     

    Section                                                                                                                               Page

     

    Project Status at a Glance................................................................................................ xvii

    Foreword.......................................................................................................................... xix

    Reporters’ Memorandum.................................................................................................. xxi

    CHAPTER 1

    SUBJECT MATTER AND STANDARDS: GENERALLY

    § 1. How Copyright Protection Arises................................................................................... 1

    § 2. Types of Works Protected............................................................................................ 10

    § 3. Works Incorporating Preexisting Material: Derivative Works......................................... 27

    § 4. Works Incorporating Preexisting Material: Compilations............................................... 45

    § 5. Originality: In General................................................................................................ 56

    § 6. Originality: Independent-Creation Requirement........................................................... 59

    § 7. Originality: Minimal-Creativity Requirement............................................................... 64

    § 8. Fixation......................................................................................................... 75

    § 9. Excluded Subject Matter: Works of the United States Government............................... 91

    § 11. National-Origin Eligibility....................................................................................... 108

    CHAPTER 2

    SUBJECT MATTER OF COPYRIGHT: SCOPE OF PROTECTION

    § 12. Copyright that Subsists in a Work Protects Original Expression but Does Not Extend to Ideas or Other Excluded Elements [For Discussion Only]..................................... 117

    § 13. Copyright Protects Expression.................................................................................. 127

    § 14. Exclusion of Ideas from Scope of Copyright Protection............................................. 131

    § 16. Exclusion of Facts from Scope of Copyright Protection............................................. 134

    § 19. Pictorial, Graphic, and Sculptural Features in the Design of Useful Articles............... 142

    CHAPTER 3

    INITIAL OWNERSHIP, TRANSFERS, VOLUNTARY LICENSES, AND TERMINATION OF GRANTS

     

    § 20. Initial Ownership, Transfer, and Licensing of Copyright: Generally........................... 165

    § 21. Initial Ownership by Sole Authorship....................................................................... 173

    § 22. Joint Works............................................................................................................. 179

    § 23. Ownership of Copyright in a Joint Work.................................................................. 201

    § 24. Works Made for Hire............................................................................................... 222

    § 25. Transfers of Copyright............................................................................................. 246

    § 26. The Written Instrument Requirement...................................................................... 263

    § 27. Nonexclusive Licenses............................................................................................. 280

    § 28. Law Governing the Interpretation of Transfers and Nonexclusive Licenses................ 292

    § 29. Statutory Rights to Terminate Transfers and Licenses............................................... 297

     

    Appendix A. Chapter 1 Statutory Appendix................................................................... 319

    Appendix B. Chapter 2 Statutory Appendix.................................................................... 327

    Appendix C. Chapter 3 Statutory Appendix................................................................... 331

    Appendix D. Black Letter of Tentative Draft No. 2......................................................... 341

     

     

     

                           

    Tentative Draft No. 2 contains Chapter 1, Subject Matter and Standards: Generally (§§ 1-9, 11); Chapter 2, Subject Matter of Copyright: Scope of Protection (§ 12 (for discussion only); §§ 13, 14, 16, 19); and Chapter 3, Initial Ownership, Transfers, Voluntary Licenses, and Termination of Grants (§§ 20-29). The membership voted to approve Sections 1-9, 11, 13, 14, 16, 19, and 20-26 of this draft at the 2021 Annual Meeting, subject to motions to amend the draft passed at the Annual Meeting, the discussion at the Meeting, and editorial prerogative. Time expired before Sections 27-29 were discussed. The approved material may be cited as representing the Institute’s position until the official text is published.

     
  •  
    Tentative Draft No. 1
    #1RCRTD1E

     

    Tentative Draft No. 1 contains §§ 1-9 and 11 of Chapter 1, Subject Matter and Standards: Generally; §§ 12-14 and 19 of Chapter 2, Subject Matter of Copyright: Scope of Protection; and §§ 20 (for discussion only) and 21-26 of Chapter 3, Initial Ownership, Transfers, Licenses, Termination of Grants, and Abandonment. This draft was prepared for consideration at the 2020 Annual Meeting, which was cancelled. The draft has not been considered by the membership of ALI and therefore does not represent the position of the Institute on any of the issues with which it deals. The draft may be revised or supplemented prior to consideration by the membership in 2021.