Restatement of the Law Fourth,

Property

This Restatement seeks to bring comprehensiveness and coherence to American property law. Subjects to be covered include the classification of entitlements, possession, accession, and acquisition; ownership powers; protection of and limits on ownership; divided and shared ownership; title and transfer; easements, servitudes, and land use; and public rights and takings.
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    Tentative Draft No. 3
    Tentative Draft No. 3
    510 pages, 2022, #1R4PRTD3

    Table of Contents

    Section                                                                             Page

    Project Status at a Glance ................................................. xix

    Foreword ............................................................................. xx

    Reporters’ Memorandum ................................................... xxi

    Projected Overall Table of Contents ................................. xxiii

    VOLUME 2

    INTERFERENCES WITH, AND LIMITS ON, OWNERSHIP AND POSSESSION

    DIVISION I

    PROPERTY TORTS

    CHAPTER 2

    PRIVATE NUISANCE: PRIMA FACIE CASE

    TOPIC 1

    PRIVATE NUISANCE, GENERALLY

    Introductory Note .................................................................. 1

    § 2.1. Private Nuisance ........................................................ 3

    § 2.2. Unreasonable Interference with Use and
    Enjoyment .......................................................................... 20

    § 2.3. Failure to Abate Natural Condition on Land ............. 39

    § 2.4. Persons Entitled to Sue ............................................ 48

    VOLUME 3

    POWERS AND DUTIES ASSOCIATED WITH OWNERSHIP

    DIVISION III

    BAILMENTS

    Introductory Note ................................................................ 53

    § 1. Definition of Bailment .................................................. 55

    § 2. Exclusive Possession by the Bailee ............................ 65

    § 3. Types of Bailment Formation ....................................... 76

    § 4. Formation of Actual Bailment ...................................... 80

    § 5. Formation of Constructive Bailment ............................ 83

    § 6. Circumstances Justifying Constructive Bailment ......... 84

    § 7. Categories of Bailment Relationship ........................... 91

    § 8. Bailment Scope ........................................................... 98

    § 9. Rights of Bailors ........................................................ 109

    § 10. Duties of Bailors ...................................................... 114

    § 11. Rights of Bailees ...................................................... 115

    § 12. Duties of Bailees ...................................................... 118

    § 12A. Conversion by Demand and Refusal .................... 122

    § 12B. Misdelivery ............................................................ 125

    § 12C. Qualified Refusals to Surrender ........................... 129

    § 13. Standards of Care Applicable to Bailees ................. 134

    § 14. Burdens of Proof Applicable to Claims Against
    Bailees ............................................................................. 137

    § 15. Contractual Modification of the Standard of Care ... 140

    § 16. Liability for Conversion Not Waivable by Contract .. 142

    § 17. Finders ................................................................... 143

    § 18. Innkeepers .............................................................. 143

    § 19. Common Carriers .................................................... 143

    VOLUME 4

    DIVIDED AND SHARED OWNERSHIP

    DIVISION I

    THE ESTATE SYSTEM

    Scope of Division I ............................................................ 145

    CHAPTER 1

    FORMS OF OWNERSHIP

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 153

    § 1.1. Real and Personal Property ................................... 153

    § 1.2. Tangible and Intangible Property ............................ 161

    § 1.3. Legal and Equitable Interests in Property .............. 171

    CHAPTER 2

    PRESENT INTERESTS: CLASSIFICATION

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 179

    § 2.1. Present Interest Defined ........................................ 180

    § 2.2. Fee Simple Absolute; Absolute Ownership ............ 182

    § 2.3. Fee Simple Defeasible ........................................... 186

    § 2.4. Fee Tail Estate Not Recognized ............................. 190

    § 2.5. Life Estate .............................................................. 193

    § 2.6. Term of Years ......................................................... 198

    CHAPTER 3

    FUTURE INTERESTS: CLASSIFICATION

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 202

    § 3.1. Future Interest Defined .......................................... 203

    § 3.2. Reversion or Remainder ........................................ 204

    § 3.3. Contingent or Vested .............................................. 213

    § 3.4. Postponed Class Gifts; Subject to Open ................ 228

    § 3.5. Rule of Destructibility of Contingent Remainders
    Not Recognized ................................................................ 231

    CHAPTER 4

    MAINTAINING AND SIMPLIFYING THE ESTATE SYSTEM

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 236

    § 4.1. Limited Number of Forms; Closed Catalog of
    Estates ............................................................................. 239

    § 4.2. Enforcing Standard Forms; Creating New Forms .. 258

    § 4.3. Simplifying Existing Forms ..................................... 267

    § 4.4. Conservation of Estates ......................................... 279

    § 4.5. Merger .................................................................... 283

    § 4.6. Extinguishment; Termination of Interests ............... 297

    CHAPTER 5

    WASTE

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 305

    § 5.1. Liability for Waste ................................................... 308

    § 5.2. Remedies for Waste ............................................... 342

    VOLUME 7

    LAND USE

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 351

    DIVISION I

    ZONING

    CHAPTER 1

    THE ROOTS OF ZONING LAW

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 353

    § 1.1. Authority for Zoning ................................................ 355

    § 1.2. Procedures for Adopting Local Law ....................... 365

    § 1.3. Relationship with Nuisance Law ............................ 365

    § 1.4. Relationship with Servitudes .................................. 367

    CHAPTER 2

    FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 368

    § 2.1. Zoning .................................................................... 368

    § 2.2. Land Use ................................................................ 373

    § 2.3. Principal Use .......................................................... 374

    § 2.4. Accessory Use ........................................................ 376

    § 2.5. Structure ................................................................. 380

    § 2.6. District .................................................................... 382

    CHAPTER 3

    REGULATING LAND USE, STRUCTURES, AND LOTS

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 386

    § 3.1. Zoning Generally .................................................... 386

    § 3.2. Regulating Land Use .............................................. 388

    § 3.3. Regulating the Form of Structures ......................... 394

    § 3.4. Regulating Lots ...................................................... 394

    DIVISION II

    PLANNING

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 396

    § 1. Authority for Planning ................................................ 396

    § 2. Adoption of Comprehensive Plan .............................. 404

    § 3. Relationship of Comprehensive Plan to Zoning ........ 406

    DIVISION III

    SUBDIVISION

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 426

    § 1. Authority to Regulate Subdivision ............................. 426

    § 2. Subdivisions Generally .............................................. 435

    § 3. Subdivision Standards .............................................. 440

    § 4. Subdivision Review ................................................... 442

    § 5. Subdivision Approval ................................................. 444

    Appendix A. Black Letter of Tentative Draft No. 3 ....... 446

    Appendix B. Black Letter of Sections Approved by Membership .................................................................... 466

    Tentative Draft No. 3 includes material from Volumes 2, 3, and 4 on Nuisance, Bailments, The Estate System and Related Matters, and Zoning, Planning, and Subdivision. The membership voted to approve this draft at the 2022 Annual Meeting, subject to the discussion at the Meeting and editorial prerogative. This material may be cited as representing the Institute’s position until the official text is published.

    510 pages, 2022, #1R4PRTD3E

    Table of Contents

    Section                                                                             Page

    Project Status at a Glance ................................................. xix

    Foreword ............................................................................. xx

    Reporters’ Memorandum ................................................... xxi

    Projected Overall Table of Contents ................................. xxiii

    VOLUME 2

    INTERFERENCES WITH, AND LIMITS ON, OWNERSHIP AND POSSESSION

    DIVISION I

    PROPERTY TORTS

    CHAPTER 2

    PRIVATE NUISANCE: PRIMA FACIE CASE

    TOPIC 1

    PRIVATE NUISANCE, GENERALLY

    Introductory Note .................................................................. 1

    § 2.1. Private Nuisance ........................................................ 3

    § 2.2. Unreasonable Interference with Use and
    Enjoyment .......................................................................... 20

    § 2.3. Failure to Abate Natural Condition on Land ............. 39

    § 2.4. Persons Entitled to Sue ............................................ 48

    VOLUME 3

    POWERS AND DUTIES ASSOCIATED WITH OWNERSHIP

    DIVISION III

    BAILMENTS

    Introductory Note ................................................................ 53

    § 1. Definition of Bailment .................................................. 55

    § 2. Exclusive Possession by the Bailee ............................ 65

    § 3. Types of Bailment Formation ....................................... 76

    § 4. Formation of Actual Bailment ...................................... 80

    § 5. Formation of Constructive Bailment ............................ 83

    § 6. Circumstances Justifying Constructive Bailment ......... 84

    § 7. Categories of Bailment Relationship ........................... 91

    § 8. Bailment Scope ........................................................... 98

    § 9. Rights of Bailors ........................................................ 109

    § 10. Duties of Bailors ...................................................... 114

    § 11. Rights of Bailees ...................................................... 115

    § 12. Duties of Bailees ...................................................... 118

    § 12A. Conversion by Demand and Refusal .................... 122

    § 12B. Misdelivery ............................................................ 125

    § 12C. Qualified Refusals to Surrender ........................... 129

    § 13. Standards of Care Applicable to Bailees ................. 134

    § 14. Burdens of Proof Applicable to Claims Against
    Bailees ............................................................................. 137

    § 15. Contractual Modification of the Standard of Care ... 140

    § 16. Liability for Conversion Not Waivable by Contract .. 142

    § 17. Finders ................................................................... 143

    § 18. Innkeepers .............................................................. 143

    § 19. Common Carriers .................................................... 143

    VOLUME 4

    DIVIDED AND SHARED OWNERSHIP

    DIVISION I

    THE ESTATE SYSTEM

    Scope of Division I ............................................................ 145

    CHAPTER 1

    FORMS OF OWNERSHIP

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 153

    § 1.1. Real and Personal Property ................................... 153

    § 1.2. Tangible and Intangible Property ............................ 161

    § 1.3. Legal and Equitable Interests in Property .............. 171

    CHAPTER 2

    PRESENT INTERESTS: CLASSIFICATION

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 179

    § 2.1. Present Interest Defined ........................................ 180

    § 2.2. Fee Simple Absolute; Absolute Ownership ............ 182

    § 2.3. Fee Simple Defeasible ........................................... 186

    § 2.4. Fee Tail Estate Not Recognized ............................. 190

    § 2.5. Life Estate .............................................................. 193

    § 2.6. Term of Years ......................................................... 198

    CHAPTER 3

    FUTURE INTERESTS: CLASSIFICATION

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 202

    § 3.1. Future Interest Defined .......................................... 203

    § 3.2. Reversion or Remainder ........................................ 204

    § 3.3. Contingent or Vested .............................................. 213

    § 3.4. Postponed Class Gifts; Subject to Open ................ 228

    § 3.5. Rule of Destructibility of Contingent Remainders
    Not Recognized ................................................................ 231

    CHAPTER 4

    MAINTAINING AND SIMPLIFYING THE ESTATE SYSTEM

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 236

    § 4.1. Limited Number of Forms; Closed Catalog of
    Estates ............................................................................. 239

    § 4.2. Enforcing Standard Forms; Creating New Forms .. 258

    § 4.3. Simplifying Existing Forms ..................................... 267

    § 4.4. Conservation of Estates ......................................... 279

    § 4.5. Merger .................................................................... 283

    § 4.6. Extinguishment; Termination of Interests ............... 297

    CHAPTER 5

    WASTE

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 305

    § 5.1. Liability for Waste ................................................... 308

    § 5.2. Remedies for Waste ............................................... 342

    VOLUME 7

    LAND USE

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 351

    DIVISION I

    ZONING

    CHAPTER 1

    THE ROOTS OF ZONING LAW

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 353

    § 1.1. Authority for Zoning ................................................ 355

    § 1.2. Procedures for Adopting Local Law ....................... 365

    § 1.3. Relationship with Nuisance Law ............................ 365

    § 1.4. Relationship with Servitudes .................................. 367

    CHAPTER 2

    FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 368

    § 2.1. Zoning .................................................................... 368

    § 2.2. Land Use ................................................................ 373

    § 2.3. Principal Use .......................................................... 374

    § 2.4. Accessory Use ........................................................ 376

    § 2.5. Structure ................................................................. 380

    § 2.6. District .................................................................... 382

    CHAPTER 3

    REGULATING LAND USE, STRUCTURES, AND LOTS

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 386

    § 3.1. Zoning Generally .................................................... 386

    § 3.2. Regulating Land Use .............................................. 388

    § 3.3. Regulating the Form of Structures ......................... 394

    § 3.4. Regulating Lots ...................................................... 394

    DIVISION II

    PLANNING

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 396

    § 1. Authority for Planning ................................................ 396

    § 2. Adoption of Comprehensive Plan .............................. 404

    § 3. Relationship of Comprehensive Plan to Zoning ........ 406

    DIVISION III

    SUBDIVISION

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 426

    § 1. Authority to Regulate Subdivision ............................. 426

    § 2. Subdivisions Generally .............................................. 435

    § 3. Subdivision Standards .............................................. 440

    § 4. Subdivision Review ................................................... 442

    § 5. Subdivision Approval ................................................. 444

    Appendix A. Black Letter of Tentative Draft No. 3 ....... 446

    Appendix B. Black Letter of Sections Approved by Membership .................................................................... 466

    Tentative Draft No. 3 includes material from Volumes 2, 3, and 4 on Nuisance, Bailments, The Estate System and Related Matters, and Zoning, Planning, and Subdivision. The membership voted to approve this draft at the 2022 Annual Meeting, subject to the discussion at the Meeting and editorial prerogative. This material may be cited as representing the Institute’s position until the official text is published.

     
  •  
    Tentative Draft No. 3
    510 pages, 2022, #1R4PRTD3E

    Table of Contents

    Section                                                                             Page

    Project Status at a Glance ................................................. xix

    Foreword ............................................................................. xx

    Reporters’ Memorandum ................................................... xxi

    Projected Overall Table of Contents ................................. xxiii

    VOLUME 2

    INTERFERENCES WITH, AND LIMITS ON, OWNERSHIP AND POSSESSION

    DIVISION I

    PROPERTY TORTS

    CHAPTER 2

    PRIVATE NUISANCE: PRIMA FACIE CASE

    TOPIC 1

    PRIVATE NUISANCE, GENERALLY

    Introductory Note .................................................................. 1

    § 2.1. Private Nuisance ........................................................ 3

    § 2.2. Unreasonable Interference with Use and
    Enjoyment .......................................................................... 20

    § 2.3. Failure to Abate Natural Condition on Land ............. 39

    § 2.4. Persons Entitled to Sue ............................................ 48

    VOLUME 3

    POWERS AND DUTIES ASSOCIATED WITH OWNERSHIP

    DIVISION III

    BAILMENTS

    Introductory Note ................................................................ 53

    § 1. Definition of Bailment .................................................. 55

    § 2. Exclusive Possession by the Bailee ............................ 65

    § 3. Types of Bailment Formation ....................................... 76

    § 4. Formation of Actual Bailment ...................................... 80

    § 5. Formation of Constructive Bailment ............................ 83

    § 6. Circumstances Justifying Constructive Bailment ......... 84

    § 7. Categories of Bailment Relationship ........................... 91

    § 8. Bailment Scope ........................................................... 98

    § 9. Rights of Bailors ........................................................ 109

    § 10. Duties of Bailors ...................................................... 114

    § 11. Rights of Bailees ...................................................... 115

    § 12. Duties of Bailees ...................................................... 118

    § 12A. Conversion by Demand and Refusal .................... 122

    § 12B. Misdelivery ............................................................ 125

    § 12C. Qualified Refusals to Surrender ........................... 129

    § 13. Standards of Care Applicable to Bailees ................. 134

    § 14. Burdens of Proof Applicable to Claims Against
    Bailees ............................................................................. 137

    § 15. Contractual Modification of the Standard of Care ... 140

    § 16. Liability for Conversion Not Waivable by Contract .. 142

    § 17. Finders ................................................................... 143

    § 18. Innkeepers .............................................................. 143

    § 19. Common Carriers .................................................... 143

    VOLUME 4

    DIVIDED AND SHARED OWNERSHIP

    DIVISION I

    THE ESTATE SYSTEM

    Scope of Division I ............................................................ 145

    CHAPTER 1

    FORMS OF OWNERSHIP

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 153

    § 1.1. Real and Personal Property ................................... 153

    § 1.2. Tangible and Intangible Property ............................ 161

    § 1.3. Legal and Equitable Interests in Property .............. 171

    CHAPTER 2

    PRESENT INTERESTS: CLASSIFICATION

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 179

    § 2.1. Present Interest Defined ........................................ 180

    § 2.2. Fee Simple Absolute; Absolute Ownership ............ 182

    § 2.3. Fee Simple Defeasible ........................................... 186

    § 2.4. Fee Tail Estate Not Recognized ............................. 190

    § 2.5. Life Estate .............................................................. 193

    § 2.6. Term of Years ......................................................... 198

    CHAPTER 3

    FUTURE INTERESTS: CLASSIFICATION

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 202

    § 3.1. Future Interest Defined .......................................... 203

    § 3.2. Reversion or Remainder ........................................ 204

    § 3.3. Contingent or Vested .............................................. 213

    § 3.4. Postponed Class Gifts; Subject to Open ................ 228

    § 3.5. Rule of Destructibility of Contingent Remainders
    Not Recognized ................................................................ 231

    CHAPTER 4

    MAINTAINING AND SIMPLIFYING THE ESTATE SYSTEM

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 236

    § 4.1. Limited Number of Forms; Closed Catalog of
    Estates ............................................................................. 239

    § 4.2. Enforcing Standard Forms; Creating New Forms .. 258

    § 4.3. Simplifying Existing Forms ..................................... 267

    § 4.4. Conservation of Estates ......................................... 279

    § 4.5. Merger .................................................................... 283

    § 4.6. Extinguishment; Termination of Interests ............... 297

    CHAPTER 5

    WASTE

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 305

    § 5.1. Liability for Waste ................................................... 308

    § 5.2. Remedies for Waste ............................................... 342

    VOLUME 7

    LAND USE

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 351

    DIVISION I

    ZONING

    CHAPTER 1

    THE ROOTS OF ZONING LAW

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 353

    § 1.1. Authority for Zoning ................................................ 355

    § 1.2. Procedures for Adopting Local Law ....................... 365

    § 1.3. Relationship with Nuisance Law ............................ 365

    § 1.4. Relationship with Servitudes .................................. 367

    CHAPTER 2

    FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 368

    § 2.1. Zoning .................................................................... 368

    § 2.2. Land Use ................................................................ 373

    § 2.3. Principal Use .......................................................... 374

    § 2.4. Accessory Use ........................................................ 376

    § 2.5. Structure ................................................................. 380

    § 2.6. District .................................................................... 382

    CHAPTER 3

    REGULATING LAND USE, STRUCTURES, AND LOTS

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 386

    § 3.1. Zoning Generally .................................................... 386

    § 3.2. Regulating Land Use .............................................. 388

    § 3.3. Regulating the Form of Structures ......................... 394

    § 3.4. Regulating Lots ...................................................... 394

    DIVISION II

    PLANNING

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 396

    § 1. Authority for Planning ................................................ 396

    § 2. Adoption of Comprehensive Plan .............................. 404

    § 3. Relationship of Comprehensive Plan to Zoning ........ 406

    DIVISION III

    SUBDIVISION

    Introductory Note .............................................................. 426

    § 1. Authority to Regulate Subdivision ............................. 426

    § 2. Subdivisions Generally .............................................. 435

    § 3. Subdivision Standards .............................................. 440

    § 4. Subdivision Review ................................................... 442

    § 5. Subdivision Approval ................................................. 444

    Appendix A. Black Letter of Tentative Draft No. 3 ....... 446

    Appendix B. Black Letter of Sections Approved by Membership .................................................................... 466

    Tentative Draft No. 3 includes material from Volumes 2, 3, and 4 on Nuisance, Bailments, The Estate System and Related Matters, and Zoning, Planning, and Subdivision. The membership voted to approve this draft at the 2022 Annual Meeting, subject to the discussion at the Meeting and editorial prerogative. This material may be cited as representing the Institute’s position until the official text is published.

     
  •  
    Tentative Draft No. 2
    136 pages, 2021, #1R4PRTD2E

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

     

    Section                                                                                                                                      Page

    Project Status at a Glance............................................................................................ xvii

    Foreword........................................................................................................................ xix

    Reporters’ Memorandum.............................................................................................. xxi

    Projected Overall Table of Contents.......................................................................... xxiii

     

    Volume 1

    THE BASICS OF PROPERTY

    DIVISION Ii

    POSSESSION

    CHAPTER 1

    POSSESSION

    Introductory Note.............................................................................................................. 1

    § 1.1. Possession............................................................................................................... 2

    § 1.8. Right to Possession............................................................................................... 13

     

    Volume 2

    Interferences with, and Limits on, Ownership and Possession

    DIVISION I

    PROPERTY TORTS

    CHAPTER 1

    TRESPASS TO LAND

    Introductory Note............................................................................................................ 19

    Topic 1: Trespass to Land

    Topic Note: Trespass to Land, Generally....................................................................... 20

    § 1.1. Trespass to Land: Prima Facie Case.................................................................... 21

    § 1.2. Trespass Above and Below the Surface [To come]............................................. 46

    § 1.3. Persons Entitled to Sue for Trespass to Land...................................................... 46

    § 1.4. Trespass to Land and Harm.................................................................................. 53

    § 1.5. Intent Required for Trespass to Land................................................................... 56

    Volume 3

    POWERS AND DUTIES ASSOCIATED WITH OWNERSHIP

    DIVISION Iii

    BAILMENTS

    Introductory Note............................................................................................................ 67

    § 1. Definition of Bailment............................................................................................ 69

    § 2. Exclusive Possession by the Bailee......................................................................... 79

    Appendix. Black Letter of Tentative Draft No. 2.......................................................... 93

     

     

     

     

    Tentative Draft No. 2 includes material from Volumes 1, 2, and 3 on Possession, Trespass to Land, and Bailments. The membership voted to approve this draft at the 2021 Annual Meeting, subject to the discussion at the Meeting and editorial prerogative. This material may be cited as representing the Institute’s position until the official text is published.

     
  •  
    Tentative Draft No. 1
    #1R4PRTD1E

     

    Tentative Draft No. 1 contains §§ 1.1 and 1.8 of Volume 1, Division Two, Chapter 1, Possession; §§ 1.1, 1.3-1.5 of Volume 2, Division One, Chapter 1, Topic 1, Trespass to Land; and §§ 1 and 2 of Volume 3, Division Three Bailments. This draft was prepared for consideration at the 2020 Annual Meeting, which was cancelled. The draft has not been considered by the membership of ALI and therefore does not represent the position of the Institute on any of the issues with which it deals. The draft may be revised or supplemented prior to consideration by the membership in 2021.