Restatement of the Law, Third,

Torts: Remedies

This project is part of ALI’s ongoing revision of the Restatement Second of Torts. Portions of the Restatement Second have been superseded by the Restatement Third of Torts: Products Liability, Apportionment of Liability, Liability for Physical and Emotional Harm, and Liability for Economic Harm.
This Restatement will cover several distinct types of issues. The first is identifying the types of damages that are recoverable, including past and future lost wages, medical expenses, disfigurement, pain and suffering, lost profits, and damage to property. The second type involves issues related to measuring damages, for example, discounting future earnings to present value, the effect of taxes, and the collateral-source rule. The third type is injunctions against threatened or continuing torts or to reverse the effects of completed torts. And the fourth type is other forms of monetary relief, such as nominal and punitive damages and restitution of unjust enrichment.
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      Tentative Draft No. 1
      Tentative Draft No. 1
      306 pages, 2022, #1R3TRETD1

      TABLE OF CONTENTS

      Section                                                                             Page

      Project Status at a Glance  ................................................ xiv

      Foreword ............................................................................. xv

      Reporters’ Memorandum ................................................... xvi

      Preliminary Overall Table of Contents ................................ xix

      INTRODUCTION

      THE RIGHT TO A REMEDY

      § 1. Availability of Tort Remedies ......................................... 1

      CHAPTER 1

      COMPENSATORY DAMAGES

      TOPIC 1

      GENERAL RULES FOR MEASURING  COMPENSATORY DAMAGES

      § 2. Restoring the Rightful Position (Make-Whole Relief) .... 9

      § 3. One Satisfaction (No Double Recovery)  .................... 15

      § 4. Descriptive Categories of Damages (Immediate, 
      Consequential, Direct, General, and Special Damages) .... 26

      § 5. Reasonable Certainty .................................................. 37

      § 6. Scope of Liability (Proximate Cause)  ......................... 54

      § 7. Unforeseeable Amount or Extent of Harm (Thin-Skull Plaintiffs) ............................................................................. 56

      § 8. Avoidable Consequences (Mitigation of Damages) ..... 62

      § 9. Offsetting Benefits  .................................................... 127

      § 10. Compensation or Benefits from Collateral
      Sources ............................................................................ 146

      § 11. Loss of Chance [to come] ........................................ 168

      § 12. Multiple Sufficient Causes [to come] ....................... 168

      § 13. Taxes ....................................................................... 169

      § 14. Interest .................................................................... 193

      § 15. Present Value .......................................................... 209

      § 16. Attorneys’ Fees  ....................................................... 229

      § 17. Excessive and Inadequate Damages (New Trials, Remittitur, and Additur) ..................................................... 248

      Appendix. Black Letter of Tentative Draft No. 1 .......... 274

      Tentative Draft No. 1 contains § 1, The Right to a Remedy, and Sections from Topic 1, General Rules for Measuring Compensatory Damages, of Chapter 1 on Compensatory Damages.. The membership voted to approve §§ 1-4 and 6-8 of the draft at the 2022 Annual Meeting, subject to the discussion at the Meeting and editorial prerogative. The approved material may be cited as representing the Institute’s position until the official text is published.

      306 pages, 2022, #1R3TRETD1E

      TABLE OF CONTENTS

      Section                                                                             Page

      Project Status at a Glance  ................................................ xiv

      Foreword ............................................................................. xv

      Reporters’ Memorandum ................................................... xvi

      Preliminary Overall Table of Contents ................................ xix

      INTRODUCTION

      THE RIGHT TO A REMEDY

      § 1. Availability of Tort Remedies ......................................... 1

      CHAPTER 1

      COMPENSATORY DAMAGES

      TOPIC 1

      GENERAL RULES FOR MEASURING  COMPENSATORY DAMAGES

      § 2. Restoring the Rightful Position (Make-Whole Relief) .... 9

      § 3. One Satisfaction (No Double Recovery)  .................... 15

      § 4. Descriptive Categories of Damages (Immediate, 
      Consequential, Direct, General, and Special Damages) .... 26

      § 5. Reasonable Certainty .................................................. 37

      § 6. Scope of Liability (Proximate Cause)  ......................... 54

      § 7. Unforeseeable Amount or Extent of Harm (Thin-Skull Plaintiffs) ............................................................................. 56

      § 8. Avoidable Consequences (Mitigation of Damages) ..... 62

      § 9. Offsetting Benefits  .................................................... 127

      § 10. Compensation or Benefits from Collateral
      Sources ............................................................................ 146

      § 11. Loss of Chance [to come] ........................................ 168

      § 12. Multiple Sufficient Causes [to come] ....................... 168

      § 13. Taxes ....................................................................... 169

      § 14. Interest .................................................................... 193

      § 15. Present Value .......................................................... 209

      § 16. Attorneys’ Fees  ....................................................... 229

      § 17. Excessive and Inadequate Damages (New Trials, Remittitur, and Additur) ..................................................... 248

      Appendix. Black Letter of Tentative Draft No. 1 .......... 274

      Tentative Draft No. 1 contains § 1, The Right to a Remedy, and Sections from Topic 1, General Rules for Measuring Compensatory Damages, of Chapter 1 on Compensatory Damages.. The membership voted to approve §§ 1-4 and 6-8 of the draft at the 2022 Annual Meeting, subject to the discussion at the Meeting and editorial prerogative. The approved material may be cited as representing the Institute’s position until the official text is published.